There are three categories of feedback:
- Effective feedback - moves learning forward
- Success feedback -helps students focus on what was done well
- Intervention feedback - helps student focus on what needs work and provides guidance for what to do about it.
Stickers are SUCCESS feedback. They let students know what was done well. Stickers can be used when students are working on developing mastery of a learning target and may need the success feedback to help them identify areas of strength. With success feedback, the focus is on reinforcing existing knowledge or past knowledge.
EFFECTIVE feedback needs to be specific and related directly to the learning targets. Effective feedback helps to move learning forward, so the focus is not just on existing knowledge but on building additional knowledge or deepening existing knowledge. Rubrics are one way to provide effective feedback. A rubric contains clear descriptions of learning expectations. Student input on the development of the rubric makes them even more powerful as feedback tools. Providing a rubric at the beginning of an assignment allows students to adjust their learning and their work to meet your clear targets. Another type of effective feedback is to provide students with examples of strong and weak work samples. Spend time discussing these samples. Compare them to the rubric. Asks students how they would improve upon weak samples or what characteristics make a sample "strong". Finally, Jan Chappuis, in her book Seven Strategies of Assessment For Learning, uses an approach called "stars and stairs" to help students identify areas where they are showing mastery and areas where they may need additional practice, revision or support.